James C. Flores

CEO and President of Freeport-McMoRan Oil & Gas

Flores is a board member of Vulcan Energy Corp., McMoRan Exploration, America's Natural Gas Alliance, and a member of the Natural Petroleum Council.

Flores was chairman and CEO of Plains Exploration & Production Company (PXP) before it was acquired by Freeport-McMoRan in 2013.  

Flores was paid $3,065,985 in 2013. 


While Flores was the CEO of PXP, the company paid company board member Dr. Charles "Chip" Groat $400,000, the same year that Groat conducted a fracking impact study for the University of Texas Austin's Energy Institute. The region Groat studied was being actively drilled by the company.   In early 2012, Groat made headlines when he claimed there was no proof linking fracking and groundwater contamination.

During the 2011-2012 election cycle Flores made over $350,000 in federal contributions, including over $60,000 to the National Republican Senatorial Committee. 

Jeffery Hildebrand

Founder, chairman, and CEO of Hilcorp Energy

Hilcorp's business is oil and gas exploration and development, including fracking operations in the Marcellus and Utica shale regions.


Hilcorp has circumvented landowners' resistance to fracking in Pennsylvania through a legal strategy called "forced pooling," which forces those holding out to lease their land to join others that have given their consent.

Ohio authorities shut down one of Hilcorp's fracking operations in March, 2014 after it was linked to magnitude 2.6 and 3.0 earthquakes.

Hildebrand sold his company's stake in the Eagle Ford (TX) shale play to Marathon Oil for $1.4 billion in 2011, using the money to invest in the Cook Inlet, Alaska oil fields. In an apparent rush to profit from its new investments, the company soon ran afoul of the law, later paying a $115,000 civil penalty for failing to notify the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission about changes to its drilling plans that were not in its permit. "The aggressiveness with which Hilcorp is moving forward with operations appears to be contributing to regulatory compliance issues," the commissions said in its 4/10/13 order.  Meanwhile, fishermen concerned about decreasing salmon stock due to "the loss and degradation of freshwater habitat" accused the state's Department of Fish and Game of illegally giving the company permits to fill a critical habitat area called Redoubt Bay as part of its oil storage operations.

In 2012 EPA fined Hilcorp $26,100 for "failing to address secondary containment for spilled gasoline and collection of oil discharges from its Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana offshore drilling operations.

During the 2011-2012 election cycle, Hildebrand gave nearly $700,000 to federal candidates and super PACs, including a $450,000 contribution to Mitt Romney's Restore Our Future super PAC. He was also a big supporter of Texas Gov. Rick Perry's presidential campaign.

Robert Murray

CEO and founder of Murray Energy Corporation, a coal mining company

Murray is a director of the National Mining Association, the American Coal Foundation, and the National Coal Council.


Murray Energy is the 71st greatest global warming polluter of all time.

While Murray has emphasized his company's concern for worker health and safety, from 2000 to 2009 the federal Mine Safety and Health Administration cited Murray Energy for over 7,700 "significant" violations resulting in $18 million in fines, including a record $1.8 million fine for a 2007 collapse at the company’s Crandall Canyon Mine in Utah, which killed six miners and three rescue workers. After the collapse, Murray offered to let miners relocate to other mines, but only if they took a pay cut.  A 2008 MSHA report concluded the mine was “destined to fail” because the company didn’t report early warning signs.

Murray gave over $230,000 to conservative candidates and PACs in the 2012 election cycle, including $30,000 to House Speaker John Boehner and $5,000 to Wisconsin's union-busting governor, Republican Scott Walker.

In 2012 Murray hosted a $1.7 million fund-raiser for Mitt Romney, making employee attendance mandatory without pay.

Days after Obama's 2012 re-election, Murray fired 163 of his employees, claiming Obama's "war on coal" made it impossible for new coal plants and jobs to thrive. 

Murray announced that in August 2014, over 1,000 ex-miners would lose their promised health benefits, blaming Obama's "war on coal."

In 2013, Murray unsuccessfully sued blogger Mike Stark for defamation and invasion of privacy after the blogger published an article on Huffington Post highlighting a $30,000 donation that Murray made to Virginia Republican Ken Cuccinelli's gubernatorial campaign.

In 2014, Murray appointed climate denier Steve Milloy to be the company's Director of External Policy and Strategy. 

In March 2014 Murray sued the EPA, claiming that the agency's air pollution regulations are illegally causing coal mines to shut down.  



Murray has described global warming as "hysterical global goofiness." 

In his 2007 testimony before Congress, Murray said, "The hysterical and out-of-control climate change or global warming issue, and the legislation that you have proposed, will lead to the deterioration of the American standard of living and the accelerated exportation of more of our jobs to China and other developing countries, which have repeatedly advised, as recent (sic) as last week, that they will not limit their carbon dioxide emissions."

Referring to Rachel Carson: "She and her environmental followers killed millions of human beings around the world with the ban on DDT, which has since been found by the World Health Organization to be very safe to humans in controlling global epidemics."

Explaining employee benefit cuts: "Murray Energy's inability to provide these benefits is, in part, due to the destruction of the coal industry, including our markets, by the Obama Administration and its appointees and supporters, who have eliminated the livelihoods of thousands of coal miners, and their families, by the forced closing of 392 coal-fired electric power plants in America, now and in the immediate future." 

Bennett Hatfield

President and CEO of Patriot Coal

Hatfield previously served as President of Arch Coal's Eastern Operations, as well as Executive Vice President & Chief Operating Officer of Massey Energy, which he joined in 1979. 


St. Louis-based Patriot Coal is a 2007 spin-off of Peabody Energy.

Patriot filed for bankruptcy in July 2012, saying coal demand was at a 24-year low.  Critics say Peabody created Patriot Coal in order to dump some eastern coal assets and cut its pension and retiree-health-care obligations for 22,000 retired miners and their dependents. Union leaders accused Peabody of setting Patriot up to fail in order to avoid paying out miners affected with black lung and other diseases. In St. Louis, where Peabody is based, a judge later approved Patriot's request to offload $1.5 billion in retiree health obligations. The company later reached an agreement with the United Mine Workers, along with Peabody, to create a $400 million benefits fund for retirees. 

But before the agreement was reached, Hatfield raked in an annual salary of almost $800,000, and the company paid its executives $6.9 million in performance and retention bonuses.

On November 14, 2012 Patriot Coal agreed to stop all mountaintop removal in Central Appalachia through a joint announcement with the Sierra Club, Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition and West Virginia Highlands Conservancy.

Hatfield made over $152,000 in federal election contributions during the 2011-12 election cycle, including $30,000 to the Romney Victory Fund. During the same time Patriot Coal spent $3.3 million lobbying Congress on mine safety and other issues.

Through his current and previous positions, Hatfield has been associated with some of the largest carbon polluters in history, including Peabody Energy (13th), Arch Coal (30th) and Massey (47th).

Richard Gilliam

Founder and Chairman of Cumberland Resources

Gilliam graduated from University of Virginia's College at Wise, a community located in southwestern Virginia's coal country. Gilliam founded Cumberland Resources, later selling it to Massey Energy.


Richard Gilliam founded the Virginia-based coal mining company and sold it to Massey Energy in 2010 for $960 million, part of the proceeds of which he distributed to his employees.  Gilliam is currently a board director for Endurance Gold Corp. (Vancouver, CA).

Gilliam and his wife Leslie have contributed to conservative front groups and think tanks supported by Charles and David Koch. The Giliams attended the Koch brothers' secretive strategy retreat in June, 2010, according to Mother Jones magazine.

Gilliam is a major donor to Republican candidates and committees. In 2010, Gilliam ranked #33 among top individual contributors to federal campaigns, with all $525,920 going to Republican candidates, according to the Center for Responsive Politics.

In 2012, Gilliam spent $1,202,800, including $750,000 to Karl Rove's American Crossroads PAC and $250,000 to Mitt Romney's Restore Our Future PAC.

Gilliam also gave $100,000 to the gubernatorial campaign of Virginia's Bob McConnell, who was later indicted on unrelated corruption charges. Marvin Gilliam gave McConnell another $75,000. Richard Gilliam was co-chair of Gov. Bob McDonnell’s inauguration in 2009. McDonnell, in turn, appointed family members to university boards.

Gilliam supports the Gilliam Center for Free Enterprise Leadership at James Madison University.

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Stephen Chazen

CEO, Occidental Petroleum

Chazen is the 2014 chairman of the American Petroleum Institute.

Chazen joined Occidental Petroleum in 1994, was named CFO in 1999, became President and CFO in 2007, President, COO and a member of the board of directors in 2010, and CEO in 2011. Prior to joining Occidental he was a managing director in the investment banking group of Merrill Lynch.


Kevin Crutchfield

CEO, Alpha Natural Resources

Alpha is the third largest coal producer in the U.S.  Crutchfield previously served as president of both Coastal Coal Company and AMVEST Corporation, as well as vice president of El Paso Corporation.

In 2011, Alpha Natural Resources bought Massey Energy (owners of the second largest amount of coal reserves in the world -- 5.1 billion tons) for $7.1 billion.  The merger puts Crutchfield in charge of the largest mountaintop coal mining company in the U.S.responsible for 25 percent of all mountaintop coa

Crutchfield claims that Pesident Obama is waging a war on coal and that there is no consensus in the scientific community about global warming.

He attended a secretive retreat in Aspen in June, 2010, sponsored by the Koch bothers.

the third largest US coal mining company, recently offered its top executives $2 million retention bonuses – even though the company’s stock has lost 92% of its value over the last three years.

In March, 2014, Alpha agreed to pay $27.5 million for violating water pollution standards 6,289 times over seven years at operations in KY, PA, TN, VA and WV. It also agreed to spend $200 million to install wastewater treatment systems and take other measures to reduce discharges from 79 active mines and 25 coal-processing plants, according to the AP.   EPA enforcement chief Cynthia Giles told the AP that the settlement was “the biggest case for permit violations for numbers of violations and size of the penalty, which reflects the seriousness of violations.”

Despite the record penalty and a recent drop in the company's stock, Crutchfield received a $2 million retention bonus from the company because of "particularly difficult market and regulatory conditions which could affect the company and the coal industry generally." Crutchfield was paid over $6 million in 2012 and $6.7 million in 2011, a period during which the company's stock price lost more than 90% of its value.

In 2012, Alpha opened a new $30 million LEED-certified headquarters in Bristol, VA.  The building features "state-of-the-art energy-efficient lighting systems and windows, eco-friendly rooftops with garden areas, and incorporates a high content of recycled materials. "Today's ribbon cutting is simply the start of many more great things to come," Crutchfield said. "We're scanning the world for our next set of opportunities. We think, in the next 20 years, the world is going to demand at least an additional 2 billion tons of coal annually -- roughly equivalent to doubling the size of America's coal business."

In 2010, almost 60% of Alpha's coal production came from two huge surface mines in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming: the Belle Ayr Mine and the Eagle Butte Mine. 

Alpha (48th) and Massey (47th) are two of the top greenhouse gas polluters of all time.

Alpha spent $2.6 million in 2012 to lobby against legislation to limit global warming.

Massey is the notorious company the owned the Upper Big Branch Mine in Montcoal (WV), where 29 miners died in an explosion in April, 2010.


"I think [coal] was a good 18th-century fuel, a good 19th-century fuel, a good 20th-century fuel, and, so far, it's doing pretty well in the 21st century. ... It's not going anywhere, anytime soon. What we see is growth."

[Mining accidents] "draw some sort of morbid" interest from journalists, "kind of like a shark attack."

"The question for us and other U.S. coal producers is how we take our coals and play internationally ... That’s a new game for the U.S. coal industry … and we’re going to have to learn it very quickly under, frankly, some level of duress.”

Speaking of EPA's new power plant emissions regulations: "This is not only a war on coal, this is a war on Americans. ... EPA has no basis for moving forward."

Clarence Cazalot

Image Caption: 



CEO of Marathon Oil (2002 to 2013)

Cazalot was president of Texaco (now part of Chevron, the biggest greenhouse gas emitter in history, according to a study by Richard Heede) from 1992 to 2000.  He was the CEO of Marathon from 2002 to 2013  Cazalot currently serves on the board of directors at Spectra Energy. 

Under his leadership, in 2012, Marathon Oil spent over $2 million on lobbying.


Marathon is the 40th largest greenhouse gas polluter of all time and ranked 67th among the top toxic air polluters in the US in 2010.

In 2009, Cazalot urged Marathon employees, suppliers and customers to oppose climate legislation sponsored by Representatives Waxman and Markey, describing it as "an enormous hidden tax on all Americans" and threat to the economy.

Marathon has provided support to the Heartland Institute and the George Marshall Institute. 

Cazalot is on the board of directors of Baker Hughes.


Cazalot, who expects fossil fuel use to increase by 50 percet between 2007 and 2030, causing more carbon dioxide pollution, but says the best solution is to capture carbon dioxide and store it underground. 

Resource Capital Funds


RCF Management LLC 

Suite 200, 1400 Sixteenth Street 

Denver, Colorado 80202 

Resource Capital Funds (RCF) is a “mining-focused private equity firm” with offices in Denver, Perth, Toronto, and Long Island. Its website shows that it invests in a variety of mining companies around the world, including coal, uranium, copper, gold, and more.


Resource Capital Funds is pushing controversial coal export proposals that would disrupt communities in the Pacific Northwest, fuel climate change and air pollution, and interfere with tribal fishing rights on the Columbia River. 

Resource Capital Funds is a private equity fund with offices in Denver, New York, Canada, and Australia - though it is registered in the Cayman Islands for tax purposes. The company has played a quiet but important role in the coal industry's efforts to export coal to Asia bybankrolling Ambre Energy, the company behind the Millennium Bulk and Morrow Pacific coal export proposals in Oregon and Washington. But while some investors like Goldman Sachs have dropped their support of coal exports amid a declining global coal market and widespread community opposition, Resource Capital Funds has done just the opposite - in November 2014, it boosted its involvement by taking control of Ambre Energy's coal mines and export proposals. That's why thousands of people are calling on Resource Capital Funds to drop its investment in coal exports.

Learn more about Resource Capital Funds' controversial plans, the environmental damage from coal mining and exports, and the widespread opposition to coal exports from communities and tribes at http://www.resourcecapitalfunds-exposed.com/

America's Natural Gas Alliance


701 8th Street, NW, Suite 800

Washington, DC

ANGA is a coalition of 21 natural gas exploration and production companies in the United States, including Cabot Oil and Gas, Chesapeake Energy, Range Resources, EQT and others. It was founded in 2009 to promote increased demand for shale gas and deflect concerns about fracking, climate change and other harmful environmental effects created by the industry.


ANGA spent over $12.9 million in lobbying from 2009 to 2014.  15 out of 20 lobbyists working for ANGA in 2013 previously held positions in government. ANGA’s CEO, Marty Durbin is the nephew of Illinois Senator Richard Durbin, the second-ranking U.S. Senate Democrat.  ANGA lobbyist (1/11 to 12/12) Tom Hassenboehler was appointed as Chief Counsel to the House Energy and Power Subcommittee in December 2012.
Political Spending:
One thing is crystal clear from ANGA's 990 forms: they are "buypartisan." That is, they donate money to both sides of the political aisle, although the bulk of the dollars flows to members of the republican party. From 2010 to 2014, Republicans received 77% while Democrats received 20% of total campaign contributions. The highest contribution -- $10,000 -- was given to Rep. John Boehner’s Speaker Committee in 2014.
ANGA paid Bluewater Strategies $540,000 to lobby Congress, the White House and EPA between 2010 and 2012. Nation Magazine reporter Lee Fang revealed that ANGA also gave $25,000 to ASGK Strategies, a political consulting firm founded by the White House advisor David Axelrod, and $864,673 to Edventures Partners, an education curriculum company that has partnered with ANGA to produce classroom materials that promote the use of gas. Fang also points out ANGA has given millions of dollars to Democratic Party-affiliated PR firms, perhaps unsurprising given its new CEO is Martin "Marty" Durbin, nephew of U.S. Sen. Dick Durbin (D-IL), the U.S. Senate's Majority Whip.
"The 990 shows that ANGA paid the Glover Park Group over $2.9 million for 'research/advertising' and Dewey Square Group $738,957 for 'grassroots communications,’" wrote Fang. "Both firms are run by mostly former Clinton administration officials."
Other payments included:
$6,500 to Dewey Square for general operational support
$25,000 to Environmental Media Association, "a nonprofit organization dedicated to harnessing the power of the entertainment industry and the media to educate the global public on environmental issues and motivate sustainable lifestyles"
$8,500 to America's Promise Alliance, an education nonprofit founded by Colin Powell
$250,000 to IHS Global, a research company that produced a report last year claiming that the fracking industry will support 1.7 million new jobs
$165,000 to the Texas Tribune
$100,000 to Bloomberg Businessweek
$50,000 to National Journal
Bipartisanship, Attacks on Renewables, Money to Green Group
ANGA donated $25,000 to the Democratic Attorneys General Association, while giving nine times as much to the Republican Governors Association to the tune of $225,000. It then tossed another $200,000 to the Republican State Leadership Committee, throwing $25,000 more to Third Way, a think-tank of sorts of the corporate Blue Dog Democrats.
Not content with its vast market share of the U.S. utilities market, ANGA gave $100,000 to the "Care for Michigan Coalition," an industry-funded nonprofit created to defeat Michigan's Proposal 3 in the November 2012 elections. Proposal 3 would have mandated 25-percent of Michigan's energy portfolio come from renewable energy sources by 2025, known by energy policy wonks as 25x25.
Other major Care for Michigan Coalition donors included Warren Buffett's BNSF (whose trains carry vast amounts of frac sand and oil fracked from North Dakota's Bakken Shale), DTE Energy, CMS Energy and the Michigan Manufacturers' Association.
ANGA didn't limit its patronage to sworn enemies of renewable energy, though. It also handed $30,000 to the Texas League of Conservation Voters.  Not strictly a lobbying force alone at the state-level and federal-level, ANGA has pumped millions of dollars into public relations and advertising efforts. ANGA also recently became a founding partner of MSNBC.com's newly launched website, on whose platform it will regularly publish "native advertisements," sometimes also referred to as "branded content." Lee Fang exposed that ANGA gave $1 million in funding to “Truthland,” a pro-fracking film released to fend off Josh Fox's “Gasland: Part II.”
Donations to ALEC and "Other ALECs"
The American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) is by far the most powerful and famous corporate-funded nonprofit that companies and trade associations donate money to in order to influence state legislative and regulatory policy. ANGA was sworn in as a dues-paying member of ALEC at its States and Nation Policy Summit that took place in December 4-6, 2013 in Washington, DC. Yet ALEC is not the only registered nonprofit incorporated to "educate" elected officials or serve as a lobbying forum for corporations.
The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), which DeSmog blogger Steve Horn characterizes as "[an]other ALEC" in an investigative series published for TruthOut, received $50,000 from ANGA during fiscal year 2012. ANGA also gave $41,000 to the National Association of Counties and $10,000 to the National League of Cities.

LNG Exports
ANGA is pushing for the approval of Cove Point in Maryland and other LNG exports. In May 2014, Maryland Governor Martin O’Malley’s political group called newDEAL met with ANGA at their DC headquarters. The newDEAL is funded by large corporations that provide major funding to Republicans such as Comcast, Fluor, Merck, Microsoft, New York Life, Pfizer, Qualcomm, Verizon, Wal-Mart, the Private Equity Growth Capital Council, and ANGA. The O’Malley connection to ANGA is particularly interesting given the battle the gas industry is waging in his state. However, more than 50 Maryland Businesses who are the members of Chesapeake Sustainable Business Council and Green America’s Business Network oppose the construction of a 130 MW power plant and LNG export terminal.
In 2011, ANGA lobbied for the “Defending America's Affordable Energy and Jobs Act” which would prohibit the President or any federal agency addressing the control of emissions of a greenhouse gas (GHG) on climate change except as authorized by Congress. The law would also nullify other rules promulgated and actions taken by the Administrator of the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate GHGs. The bill was not enacted. 

Known Associates: